Our economy has increased a lot and at the same time everything became efficient, but the process of getting up to this point has affected the natural resources and climate negatively. These days one of the biggest problems in America is to plan cities in order to keep up with climate change. As recent disasters have proven, big scale cities such as New York, San Francisco, and Huston are left defenseless against large disasters caused by the climate change.
Climate change is one of the disasters that humans in this world are experiencing because of the global warming. It caused many kinds of disaster such as, flood, drought, increasing the sea level, and increasing the average temperature. Historically, state of California had experienced several serious droughts during after beginning of 1900s. There were not only reasons that humans made the drought, but also nature made reasons for the drought. “California’s climate is highly variable both spatially (from temperate rainforest conditions on the North Coast to the extreme aridity of Death Valley) and temporally. Records for maximum annual precipitation range from more than 90 inches on the North Coast to a little over 2 inches in Death Valley. Droughts and floods can occur in close proximity” (CDWR, 2016).
Ground water can contribute to surface water, so it can provide drinking water for large portion of people, supplies businesses and industries (USGS, 2017). Seasonal precipitation is the main element to increase the ground water level. But, based on the last paragraph because of the climate change, the groundwater level is keeping decreasing. Residents in California are keep using same amount of water, but because of the climate change groundwater cannot supply the water enough to the residents as past (USGS, 2017). When the temperate rose because of the climate change, snow packs were melted easily and fast. In California snowpack provides about one third of total water supply (Nesbit, 2015). In last three years, the level of the snowpack has been decreased because of reduced snowfall and warm temperatures. Warmer conditions resulted mountain snow to melt faster, snow turns into rain, and soils dry faster.
We are without a doubt in a time in which climate change cannot be disregarded. When we plan our cities we must always take the effects of global warming and climate change seriously. We have seen in recent events how the intensity of Hurricanes has increased and our cities are not prepared. After Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans has taken action by building a water surge barrier. It is designed to block off the wall of water coming into the city from tropical storms. In addition to these barriers New Orleans has also started investing in green infrastructure. Jeff Herbert, the chief resilience officer in New Orleans says “So investment in green infrastructure — water gardens, large scale parks and open spaces that can retain water and become sponges for water — that’s the direction we’re going in in New Orleans because the hard infrastructure is just not gonna do it to meet the demands that we’re gonna have over the next 50 years.” (Bender, 2010) This is very important because when we plan we have to think long term. Models and research produced by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL), there is not going to necessarily going to be more hurricanes but stronger Hurricanes.
Government of California. California Department of Water Resources. Drought Background. California: State of California, 2017. Web. 04 Dec 2017 URL: http://www.water.ca.gov/waterconditions/background.cfm
Nesbit, Jeff. “Climate Change Caused California Drought.” U.S. News, 14 Apr. 2015, www.usnews.com/news/blogs/at-the-edge/2015/04/14/climate-change-and-the-california-drought.
Government of California. U.S. Department of the interior, U.S. Geological Survey. California Drought. California: USGS, 2017. 05 Dec 2017. URL: https://ca.water.usgs.gov/data/drought/
Bender , M. A. (2010, January 22). Modeled Impact of Anthropogenic Warming on the Frequency of Intense Atlantic Hurricanes. Retrieved February 11, 2018, from https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/21st-century-projections-of-intense-hurricanes/
How 3 U.S. Cities Are Adapting To Climate Change. (2016, September 21). Retrieved February 11, 2018, from http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2016/09/21/us-cities-climate-change